|Editor||T.A. Karasova, E.E. Nosenko-Stein|
|Publisher||Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences|
Sorkina Inna (Grodno, Belarus)
Jews in the Belarus National Ideology of the Early XXth Century
by the Newspaper “Nasha Niva” (1906–1915)
The article analyses publications on Jewish subjects in the “Nasha Niva” newspaper (Belarus) during the period of 1906–1915. It shows that both information and analytical materials of the newspaper contain strong condemnation of anti-Semitism, they give an objective picture of the legal and economic situation of the Jews in Belarus and Lithuania. The leaders of
the Belarus national movement considered Jews as an integral part of the ethnic and cultural landscape of Belarus and as allies in the political struggle against the tsarist regime.
Agapov Mikhail (Tyumen)
The Jewish Community of Palestine and the USSR in the 1920–1940s
The article discusses the Soviet policy regarding the “national home of Jewish people” in Palestine established after the end of the First World War under the aegis of Great Britain, in the 1920–1940s.
In the 1920–1930s the Jewish national home became involved in economic, trade, cultural and social Soviet policies regarding the dependent states and colonies in the Middle East. Booming economic growth in the Jewish national home in Palestine turned the latter into the most attractive country, in the eyes of Soviet government, for Soviet export trading associations and economic institutions to enter Middle Eastern market.
With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, systemic negotiations started between Moscow and the leaders of the Zionist Organization and the yishuv. The initiative almost always came from the negotiator was the political department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine.
During the 1940s Soviet Palestine policy suffered a drastic change. From the demand to place Palestine under collective supervision of super powers including USSR, Soviet diplomats moved to supporting Palestine partition plan. Thus, they made essential contribution into creation of the State of Israel.
Lokshin Alexander (Moscow)
To Remember or to Forget? Attitudes towards the Holocaust of the Soviet Regime and Society
The author explores the problem of hushing up the information on the Holocaust practiced by the Soviet regime to a different extent in different periods. Such a practice, in the author’s opinion, was an integral part of the state-organized policy of Anti-Semitism in the USSR from 1939 up to the early 1990s.
Zelenina Galina (Moscow)
From “Normal Nation” to “Fascist Vermin” and Back images of the Germans in Jewish
Memories of the War
The paper examines different attitudes developed by Soviet Jews towards different Germans: “those learnt about from literature classes”, invaders of World War I, Fascists and “German nation”, “simple soldiers” and SS personnel, — and traces the origins for those attitudes such as personal experience, internationalist upbringing and wartime propaganda.
Nosenko-Stein Elena (Moscow)
Who needs the Klaas Ashes? Memory of the Holocaust and 2 World War in the Memory
of Russian Jews Today
>On these pages the author examines the role of Holocaust and war in constructing selfidentification and memory of post-Soviet Russian Jewry. Drawing on the field-materials – texts of in-depth interviews and data of survey conducted in several Russian urban centers during 2007–2011, E. Nosenko-Stein analyses the attitudes to these tragedies among different categories of people of Jewish origins, taking into account that age, percentage of “Jewish blood”, involvement in Jewish life and other factors. She also investigates the phenomenon of Jewishness based on memories of Holocaust par excellence and concludes that in spite of memorialization of these tragic events such a memory is disappearing. In the Appendix one can see two texts – an interview with a Holocaust and war survivor and fragments with a young man of Jewish origin who tells about his attitude to the Holocaust.
Maryasis Dmitry (Moscow)
“Jewish Business”: Is This Term Still Relevant Today? An Essay
This essay analyses the term “Jewish business” in modern society. It shows that the term is multifaceted. We describe it both through the prism of the Jewish attitude and non-Jewish attitude to the term. Different kind of businesses led by Jews and created according to Jewish traditional business ethics were analyzed in the paper. The most interesting finding of the work is that Jewish social entrepreneurship is a new and very effective model of Jewish business.
Pisarevskaya Dina (Moscow)
Jewish Youth Communities in Russia: Structure and Social Practices
Some key markers define Jewish identity of young people – members of the student organization “Hillel” in Moscow. But group identity and feelings of belonging to the club, to the group are more important for them than Jewish identity, according to the results of interviews and participant observation. Some peculiarities of communication make this club similar in some way to a public space. Here young people can meet their friends and take part in interesting projects corresponding with modern city activities (such as bookcrossing or events for volunteers). People who attend “Hillel” activities can be reviewed within the framework of contemporary post-subcultural studies, and “Hillel” provides them one opportunity from the
global supermarket of lifestyles.
Khlebnikova Luiza (Moscow)
Jewish Americans (AIPAC) and Israel-U.S. Relations
The article deals with the participation of Jewish Americans in the American policy and its impact on US-Israel relations. One of the political successes of Jewish Diaspora in the USA was the establishment and further development of Israel lobby, which has turned into a powerful organization after decades. It should be mentioned that there are different types of lobbies, and some of them are ideological rivals (e.g., AIPAC and J street). Nowadays, as the biggest and the strongest lobby, AIPAC plays an important but not crucial role in forming American Middle East policy. It should be stressed that American-Israel relations are based not only on Israel lobby’s influence on the American administration and Congress, there are various other reasons that unite two countries: historical context, mutual interests in the Middle East (struggle against global terrorism, stability in the Middle East region etc), benefits from cooperation in different fields such as military, science and others, and democratic values. The article illustrates a brief history of AIPAC, shows their failures and achievements in the international issues, also, it examines mechanisms and goals which followed by Israel lobby. The author concludes that Israel lobby cannot force American President to follow their will, but it will not step back and will continue to support Israel and try to improve American-Israel relations.
Baulina Irina (Moscow)
The Problems of Self-Identify in Israeli Society
The article is focused on problems of new Israeli immigrants who identify themselves as Jews and feel discrimination from the religious establishment. The author briefly went back to the establishment of the State of Israel and the first decades of its history. It was the period of
search for definition of Jewishness.
It is common knowledge that the Jewish religious law (Halakha) determines a person’s Jewishness on matrilineal basis. When Israel was flooded by lots of newcomers who were not Jew by the Jewish law (Halakha), large part of Israeli society was confronted by aversion in the eyes of religious establishment.
The second part of the article deals with the problems of legitimation of the people who want to have status of Jew by Jewish religious law (conversion). It implies the problem of reforming the conversion procedure during the last decade.
- Memory and History
- Sorkina Inna (Grodno, Belarus). Jews in the Belarus National Ideology of the Early XXth Century by the Newspaper “Nasha Niva” (1906 – 1915)
- Agapov Mikhail (Tyumen). The Jewish Community of Palestine and the USSR in the 1920–1940s
- Memory of War and Holocaust
- Lokshin Alexander (Moscow). To Remember or to Forget? Attitudes Towards the Holocaust of the Soviet Regime and Society
- Zelenina Galina (Moscow). From “Normal Nation” to “Fascist Vermin” and Back: Images of the Germans in Jewish Memories of the War
- Nosenko-Stein Elena (Moscow). Who needs the Klaas Ashes? Memory of the Holocaust and 2 World War in the Memory of Russian Jews Today
- Variations of Identity
- Maryasis Dmitry (Moscow). “Jewish Business”: Is This Term Still Relevant Today? An Essay
- Pisarevskaya Dina (Moscow). Jewish Youth Communities in Russia: Structure and Social Practices
- Khlebnikova Luiza (Moscow). Jewish Americans (AIPAC) and Israel-U.S. Relations
- Baulina Irina (Moscow). The problems of Self-Identify in Israeli Society